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Please enjoy your "Stem Cell Tour" of your body’s Renewal System.
To Research your Stem Cell Options..it will Help to know All the STEM CELL Terms and Definations.
Below is a
Stem Cell Glossary, that will give you the knowledge to make sound Stem Cell Option decisions.
Adult Stem Cells
Stem cells found in different tissues of the developed, adult organism that remain in an undifferentiated, or unspecialized, state. These stem cells can give rise to specialized cell types of the tissue from which they came, i.e., a heart stem cell can give rise to a functional heart muscle cell, types of the body.
Allogeneic transplantation Cell
Tissue or organ transplants from one member of a species to a genetically different member of the same species.
Autologous transplantation Cell
Tissue or organ transplants from one individual back to the same individual. Such transplants do not induce an immune response and are not rejected.
A very early embryo consisting of approximately 150 cells. The blastocyst is a spherical cell mass produced by cleavage of the zygote (fertilized egg). It contains a fluid-filled cavity, a cluster of cells called the inner cell mass (from which embryonic stem cells are derived) and an outer layer of cells called the trophoblast (that forms the placenta).
Bone marrow stromal cell ( ** Vital cell information for your stem cell options )
Also known as mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow stromal cells are a mixed population of cells derived from the non-blood forming fraction of bone marrow. Bone marrow stromal cells are capable of growth and differentiation into a number of different cell types including bone, cartilage and fat.
Cells that can be maintained and grown in culture and display an immortal or indefinite life span. A term referenced in many stem cell options.
A specific subset of cells within the body, defined by their appearance, location and function.
i) adipocyte: the functional cell type of fat, or adipose tissue, that is found throughout the body, particularly under the skin. Adipocytes store and synthesize fat for energy, thermal regulation and cushioning against mechanical shock
ii) cardiomyocytes: the functional muscle cell type of the heart that allows it to beat continuously and rhythmically
iii) chondrocyte: the functional cell type that makes cartilage for joints, ear canals, trachea, epiglottis, larynx, the discs between vertebrae and the ends of ribs
iv) fibroblast: a connective or support cell found within most tissues of the body. Fibroblasts provide an instructive support scaffold to help the functional cell types of a specific organ perform correctly.
v) hepatocyte: the functional cell type of the liver that makes enzymes for detoxifying metabolic waste, destroying red blood cells and reclaiming their constituents, and the synthesis of proteins for the blood plasma
vi) hematopoietic cell: the functional cell type that makes blood. Hematopoietic cells are found within the bone marrow of adults. In the fetus, hematopoietic cells are found within the liver, spleen, bone marrow and support tissues surrounding the fe tus in the womb.
vii) myocyte: the functional cell type of muscles
viii) neuron: the functional cell type of the brain that is specialized in conducting impulses
ix) osteoblast: the functional cell type responsible for making bone
x) islet cell: the functional cell of the pancreas that is responsible for secreting insulin, glucogon, gastrin and somatostatin. Together, these molecules regulate a number of processes including carbohydrate and fat metabolism, blood glucose levels and acid secretions into the stomach.
Cloning .. ( a highly controversial stem cell option)
The process in which an organism produces one or more genetically alike copies of itself by asexual means. Cloning may occur by propagation of cuttings, as in the case of plants; continual budding, as in the case of hydra; fission, as in the case of bacteria and protozoa; parthenogenic asexual reproduction as in the case of aphids; or somatic cell nuclear transfer, as in the case of higher order animals such as mammals. The term cloning can also be applied to a group of cells undergoing replication by repetitive mitoses (cell divisions).
The part of the cell not including the nucleus.
The process of development with an increase in the level of organization or complexity of a cell or tissue, accompanied with a more specialized function.
The outer of three germ layers of the early embryo that gives rise in later development to the skin, cells of the amnion and chorion, nervous system, enamel of the teeth, lens of the eye and neural crest.
The product of a fertilized egg, from the zygote until the fetal stage.
Spheroid colonies seen in culture produced by the growth of embryonic stem cells in suspension. Embryoid bodies are of mixed cell types, and the distribution and timing of the appearance of specific cell types corresponds to that observed within the embryo.
Embryonic germline cells
Embryonic germline cells, also called EG cells, are pluripotent stem cells derived from the primitive germline cells (those cells that give rise to eggs and sperm). Their properties are similar to those of embryonic stem cells.
Embryonic stem cell
Also called ES cells, embryonic stem cells are cells derived from the inner cell mass of developing blastocysts. An ES cell is self-renewing (can replicate itself), pluripotent (can form all cell types found in the body) and theoretically is immortal.
The inner of three germ layers of the early embryo that gives rise in later development to tissues such as the lungs, the intestine, the liver and the pancreas.
The stage in development from the end of the embryonic stage, 7-8 weeks after fertilization, to developed organism that ends at birth.
The three germ layers are the endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm and are the three precursory tissue layers of the early, primitive embryo (which form at approximately two weeks in the human) that give rise to all tissues of the body.
Hematopoietic stem cells
The precursors of mature blood cells that are defined by their ability to replace the bone marrow system following its obliteration (for example, by g-irradiation) and can continue to produce mature blood cells.
Hematopoietic cell transplantation
The transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells with blood-forming potential. Hematopoietic stem cells provide rapid and sustained reconstitution of blood formation and are found in adult bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, peripheral blood and in fetal liver.
Not homologous or uniform. In the context of cells, heterologous is a mixed or divergent cell population or of a divergent origin.
A tissue or organ from a donor (the person giving the organ or tissue) that will not be rejected by the recipient (the patient in whom the tissue or organ is transplanted). Rejection is caused because the immune system of the recipient sees the transplanted organ or tissue as foreign and tries to destroy it. Tissues from most people are not histocompatible with other people. In siblings, the probability of histocompatibility is higher, while identical twins are almost always histocompatible.
Similar or uniform, often used in the context of genes and DNA sequences. In the context of stem cells, the term homologous recombination is a technique used to disable a gene in embryonic stem cells.
These stem cell options articles, products, statements, testimonials, reviews, and videos, have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. They are for educational and informational purposes only and do not constitute medical advice. The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and ANY products mentioned or referenced, are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent ANY disease or illness.
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